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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

尽管中国国内经济放缓,中国对欧洲和美国的投资却达到创纪录高位。

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Participants in the study were between the ages of 18 and 44 and were asked to run twice – with and without shoes. After completing their quick runs, researchers found that the heart rate and overall run speed of each participant had no effect on memory, but the presence of shoes or bare feet did. The researchers have hypothesized that the need to engage the mind while running barefoot to avoid pebbles or other impediments could have a positive impact on a person's ability to remember things. If you're an adventurous person, you might try taking a barefoot jog around the block before your next test or before you need to remember something important.
"All institutions in this list deserve to celebrate - being named one of the most international universities in the world is a sign of great potential, competitiveness and dynamism."
有关她在片中角色的细节尚未披露。

在本届达沃斯世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)盛大闭幕会议上,与会者承认风险的存在,认为缺乏有效管理的新兴市场很容易受到危机冲击,但他们最终得出的结论是,前景是多年来最为光明的。
Neneh Cherry “Blank Project” (Smalltown Supersound)
该银行预测,寻找对冲通胀的方式的指数基金(那些追踪大宗商品指数的基金),将在明年下半年回归农产品市场。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

家居业:正在崛起的“中国制造”

foundation
tunnel
中国的网红经济发展到今天,经历了三个阶段:第一个阶段是文字时代,第二个阶段是图文时代,现在这一阶段是要归功于宽带的可用性的视频时代。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Russia and Nato have both called for a de-escalation of the Turkey-Netherlands row.
我们进行一个比较,佳士得和苏富比的这两次18世纪前绘画大师作品拍卖会共拍得2910万英镑,比五年前(2011年12月)类似拍卖会拍得的4420万英镑少了34%。
这张专辑等于是一次直截了当的暗示,提醒着我们,不论什么时候,只要霉女王想要,她就能拿回自己在流行音乐界的领先地位。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Will China's stock market climb back to the 6,000-point mark it reached two years ago? The stock market was at its most bullish back then, but if you ask the same question now, some would cite a global economy still reeling from a recession.
  • 南康“双十一”家具类产品成交额逾1亿元
  • 祝福您,新年快乐。
  • PPG公司在华传授长寿经
  • 全屋定制发展火热 或成家居行业“香饽饽”
  • “也许,小组会多你一个少你一个问题不大,但是,你的不称职就意味着67万人的缺席,你的失语就意味着67万人沉默。”
    If you do much hiring of freelancers, you’ve probably considered outsourcing the outsourcing. There are several great services that can help, each with varying business models. For example, Bolton Remotewill build your team with vetted, offshore contractors. Another provider,Hubstaff, starts with your project in mind and then matches you with project specialists. Using an outsourcing placement service will save time instead of trying to do the recruiting yourself. These firms typically offer free recruiting and placement services but take a cut of the hourly rate.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 7、8月成交连续下滑 楼市酝酿“金九”反击战, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

调控政策成楼市销量拐点 去库存出现新压力

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

北京近期房租大涨引关注 专家:租房市场亟待立法规范

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The quality of consumer goods imported through channels other than e-commerce proved to be higher, with only 29 percent falling short of standards, according to figures released by the administration.
    和你共事的多数同事你都不喜欢
  • 7.Morocco
    Mr Koepke’s point is that these conditions may change and that their significance is underestimated.
    1.水上类比赛项目
    巴尼汤普森(Barney Thompson)是法律记者
    尽管增势坚挺,上个月年增长率还是从9月份的下跌0.8%,滑落至下跌1.4%。经济学家原本预计,在截至10月份的12个月里,日本工业产出下滑幅度为0.9%。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 中山市家居市场持续低迷 部分建材商家被迫退出
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 深圳房价回调至5字头 房地产将进入深度调整期

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Estimates vary, but the research firm IDC projects that wearable tech will exceed 19 million units this year—more than triple last year’s sales—and will soar to 111.9 million units by 2018. Credit Suisse values the industry at somewhere between $30 billion and $50 billion in the next two to four years. But before that happens, the nascent market has that pesky wouldn’t-be-caught-dead-wearing-it hurdle to clear.
Other notable custom course performances include Harvard Business School, which recorded one of the year’s biggest rises, jumping nine places to fifth. The Massachusetts school was ranked 18th two years ago.
Leatrice Eiseman, the executive director of the Pantone Color Institute, said the joining of the two colors reflected “a soothing sense of order and peace” — presumably an attractive thing to incorporate into a product at a time of insecurity and global turbulence. It also implies that there is no line between “us” and “them.”
其中,上海交易所IPO共计26宗,而深圳中小企业板IPO共计15宗,创业板IPO共计20宗。
领导层
我认为这篇文章是上篇文章“成为一个足球寡妇”的完美续篇,在这篇文章里面我分享了八大规则,其中我觉得第六条最重要。
creative

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 为什么小皇帝詹姆斯不在双头肌和肩膀上再带那些奇怪的饰物,对此我很好奇。当然,我敢打赌他不会再带那些东西——因为它们没啥用处。
  • 新国标实施逾一年 定制家居市场的三大现象
  • 交易员们纷纷退出:“不可持续趋势苟延残喘的时间可以远超多数人的预期,但时候一到,在周期的顶点,它们还是会结束。”他们分析了20多种周期,“差不多无一意外地预示未来数月、数年将发生地壳运动”。
    不会。傻子才会去预测足球比赛的结果。最好是作事后诸葛亮。目前已经举办过20届世界杯。其中,巴西(5次捧杯)和德国(4次捧杯)是决赛常客。主场优势有所帮助,东道国赢得了6次奖杯。但是明年的世界杯将在俄罗斯举行,而这位东道主在参赛队伍中排名垫底。
  • 南玻A原大股东精准减持引质疑 或涉嫌内幕交易及操纵
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Kate Winslet is another Brit who’s opted for the loo for her best actress Academy Award, which she was awarded for her complex role as a concentration camp guard in the 2008 adaptation of Bernhard Schlink’s novel, The Reader.
    昨日发布的央行数据显示,中国外汇储备上月出现有记录以来第三大单月降幅。这重燃了人们对于中国遭遇资本外流的担忧,此前中国外汇储备似乎企稳。
  • 《帕丁顿熊2》
    The unemployment rate has plunged over the past three years to 5.8% from 8.6%, but almost nobody, including the Federal Reserve, thinks the labor market is really that healthy.
  • 雷军表示:“这是一个使我震惊的消息。作为一名围棋的忠实爱好者,我从来没有想到人工智能在当前阶段可以击败一个人类冠军,因为这是一项非常复杂的棋类运动。”
    教育部之后表示,他们不会容忍这种欺骗行为,并已经要求公安部门进入进行调查。
  • 重要的是要记住即使是工作空缺总数减少了,也有很多公司仍然在增加员工,而总数减少的原因仅仅是因为有些公司裁员人数比较多而已。
    Sarah O’Connor is employment correspondent
    Turkey's Deputy Prime Minister Numan Kurtulmus said Turkish authorities were in contact with those in Iraq.
  • 'Her,' which was written and directed by Spike Jonze, takes romance into the virtual realm, and its hero on a gently crazed journey of genuine passion. Joaquin Phoenix is the poignantly lonely guy who falls in love with his smartphone's new operating system. The basic conceit is a fragile one, but it's beautifully and bravely developed, as well as elegantly photographed by Hoyte Van Hoytema, with perfectly calibrated performances by Mr. Phoenix, Amy Adams and Scarlett Johansson, who is that system's voice and soul.
    不过,日本央行(BoJ)仍决定不加大货币政策刺激力度。该行指出,工业产出是日本经济疲软的领域之一。当然,就业市场等日本经济的其他领域,表现要好得多。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 厦门建材市场商家纷纷升级店面蓄客 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

试点城市郊区出租房源有望增加 实现多赢

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

财政部:减税效应继续显现 11月财政收入同比降幅扩大

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

济南家居商圈人潮汹涌 深耕市场的准确定位

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

品牌战略调整 索菲亚借势电商平民化

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 汇丰发布的正式PMI指数从10月份的50.4降至11月份的50.0,这是6个月内的最低读数。
  • 罗杰斯夫人还表示,正如条款中所述,她并没有同意她的儿子玩这个游戏。此外,由于这个游戏是免费的,所以该工作室不能够断言因为作弊软件而造成了利润损失。
  • 香港新一轮楼市泡沫已生成 内地投资客推高房价

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 自从1995年游戏第一次面世以来,续集和新版本在之后也接踵而来。但是,对于许多仙剑迷来说,《仙剑1》激动人心又充满悲伤的故事情节是其他任何版本也代替不了的。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Investigators have arrested one youth and one 18-year-old in connection to the July 9th shooting death, which occurred inside a Jamestown Cres. home.
    因为吉吉·哈迪德和凯蒂·派瑞等多位模特和表演者在申请签证时遇到了一系列问题,维密秀的主办方正试图使一切回到正轨,如今主办方又表示,中国政府还拦截了他们的邮件。
    《中国日报》(China Daily)援引中国旅游研究院(China Tourism Academy)和北京市旅游发展委员会(Beijing Commission of Tourism Development)的一篇报告称,污染状况加剧以及人民币升值,使得北京去年1月至11月间的外国游客数量从2012年同期的501万人下降至420万人。此前一份基于对国内旅行社的调查的报告显示,去年前三个季度赴北京旅游的游客数量较上年同期下降约50%。
  • 《失常》,导演查理·考夫曼(Charlie Kaufman)与杜克·约翰逊(Duke Johnson)。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 随后,学生们将饮水机移动到教师办公室,之后老师便报了警。
  • 广州5月二手住宅成交环比回落5.7% 6月市场将保持平稳
  • The 8,000 volunteers who will welcome international visitors to London 2012 have been issued with a 66-page instruction manual, covering everything from foreign etiquette to uniform care and advice on dealing with journalists. But what of the visitors themselves? Could they not do with a manual outlining the customs, manners and practicalities of the islands they are visiting? We hereby present a simple guide to UK etiquette for the 2012 Olympics.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 七个购房信号准到爆 2015房价真降还是假摔?
  • Household substance abuse
  • 回看:2016家居建材行业资本“浮世绘”
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

北京统计局:前11月商品房销售面积同比增7.2%

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 全国居民购房杠杆率连降八个季度后首次回升
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 建材家居景气指数:房地产低迷冲击 建材家居市场预期走低
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Businesses can benefit in other ways too. Craig Rollason, business analysis manager at National Grid, says he has improved his coaching skills by mentoring a Teach Firster.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

中国人民大学近日发布的我国大学生创业报告显示,学生学位与其创业意愿成反比。
Fortunately for Honda, it benefits from a deep reservoir of customer goodwill and loyalty in the U.S., as well as a reputation for building high-quality vehicles that are rated highly by objective third parties for their low cost of ownership. The reservoir was drained somewhat by a product defect controversy resulting from airbag deployments that scattered shrapnel on its victims.
因此,看看吧。我真诚地希望你们会喜欢它们,就像我在挑选和编辑它们时那样。
美国电影学会年度电影奖
Attractions: Paradise within reach.
3. Tablets meet viruses.
It would be foolish to assume western democracies are immune.
Concerns about China’s economy have recently dragged down global financial markets, affecting prospects for the eurozone and many others. Such worries are one reason why the European Central Bank is expected on Thursday to unleash a new round of economic stimulus.
Headquarter shifts: With Toyota leaving for Texas and Mercedes headed toward North Carolina or Georgia from New Jersey, look for Subaru to chart its own path when it builds its new headquarters. One option: Moving closer to its customers by relocating in Vermont.
Will China’s reported gross domestic product growth surpass 6.5 per cent

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

雄安站建设提速 将引入津保京雄石等4条线路

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 至于德克,我认为没有人应该曲意逢迎,但是总有人会这么做。从某种程度来说,如果球队处境如此令人痛心,或许摆烂会来得更轻松一些。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 本地社交媒体广告,即那些恰好出现在你的Twitter和Facebook信息流之中的广告,在2013年爆炸式增长。2014年,无论你爱也好,恨也罢,这类广告的规模只会变得越来越大。,尽管听起来有点让人毛骨悚然,但特定位置定位技术预计将在来年出现显著改进。Twitter刚刚推出了一项面向特定邮政编码区域发送有偿消息的功能。比如,当你走进一个社区,当地酒吧、干洗店和麦当劳(McDonald's)发布的“推广消息”就会突然闪现在你的Twitter信息流之中。自2011年来,Facebook一直在采用这种“地理围栏”技术。它能够让商家招揽临近的客户,这些客户实际上可能也想获得提供特别优惠和特价商品的广告信息。好处是,你可以获得更多相关的广告和推销信息。缺点同样是,更多的广告。
  • 张家口家居市场“外在”热闹难掩“实质”低迷
  • 单词severe 联想记忆:
  • 发改委:国企要在混改中解决土地经营、入股等历史遗留问题
  • Other engines cited among 2014’s best include turbodiesels in the BMW 5 Series luxury sedan and the compact Chevrolet Cruze, the horizontally opposed 2.7-liter six-cylinder in the Porsche Cayman two-seat sports coupe and the 1.8-liter turbo-four in the compact Volkswagen Jetta sedan.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 15个热点城市房价首现全面止涨
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 6. 现在,就像瘾君子戒不了毒一样,格罗斯在其博客“Tipping Point”中写道,QE将维持到2015年。“暂时没有名字的泡沫”早前似乎应该改名叫“贝南克泡沫”。但现在事关格罗斯及其太平洋投资管理公司(Pimco)的二万亿美元,或许我们应该称之为“格罗斯泡沫”。
  • Next year, the mayor’s affordable housing plan, which calls for building or preserving 200,000 units of affordable housing over the next decade, will begin to take shape. It hinges on a policy that requires developers to build affordable housing in exchange for being allowed to construct taller and denser buildings in neighborhoods rezoned by the city. Developers and housing advocates alike are waiting to see what it will look like once the administration adds muscle and flesh to the bones of the proposal.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

冬奥会致京张楼市掀涨价风 业内:政府应及时制止

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